Microbiologyopen. 2020 Oct;9(10):e1105. doi: 10.1002/mbo3.1105. Epub 2020 Aug 12.
Free PMC article
Upon acquiring two unique plasmids (pMT1 and pPCP1) and genome rearrangement during the evolution from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the plague causative agent Y. pestis is closely related to Y. pseudotuberculosis genetically but became highly virulent. We developed a pentaplex real-time PCR assay that not only detects both Yersinia species but also differentiates Y. pestis strains regarding their plasmid profiles. The five targets used were Y. pestis-specific ypo2088, caf1, and pst located on the chromosome, plasmids pMT1 and pPCP1, respectively; Y. pseudotuberculosis-specific chromosomal gene opgG; and 18S ribosomal RNA gene as an internal control for flea DNA. All targets showed 100% specificity and high sensitivity with limits of detection ranging from 1 fg to 100 fg, with Y. pestis-specific pst as the most sensitive target. Using the assay, Y. pestis strains were differentiated 100% by their known plasmid profiles. Testing Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis-spiked flea DNA showed there is no interference from flea DNA on the amplification of targeted genes. Finally, we applied the assay for testing 102 fleas collected from prairie dog burrows where prairie dog die-off was reported months before flea collection. All flea DNA was amplified by 18S rRNA; no Y. pseudotuberculosis was detected; one flea was positive for all Y. pestis-specific targets, confirming local Y. pestis transmission. Our results indicated the assay is sensitive and specific for the detection and differentiation of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The assay can be used in field investigations for the rapid identification of the plague causative agent.
Did that prairie dog just call you fat? Quite possibly. On The Current Friday, biologist Con Slobodchikoff described how he learned to understand what prairie dogs are saying to one another and discovered how eloquent they can be.
Slobodchikoff, a professor emeritus at North Arizona University, told Erica Johnson, guest host of The Current, that he started studying prairie dog language 30 years ago after scientists reported that other ground squirrels had different alarm calls to warn each other of flying predators such as hawks and eagles, versus predators on the ground, such as coyotes or badgers.